Chloroquine toxicity of retina

Discussion in 'International Pharmacy' started by crus, 23-Feb-2020.

  1. karl1k Well-Known Member

    Chloroquine toxicity of retina


    While many of these can be grouped by anatomic location or type of toxicity, there are also individual medications with characteristic effects. In this article, we will describe several major categories of pharmacologic retinal toxicity and discuss examples of individual medications.

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    Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine bind to melanin in the retinal pigment epithelium RPE and cause damage to the macular cones outside of the fovea. The drugs inhibit RPE lysosome activity, reduce phagocytosis of shed photoreceptor outer segments causing an accumulation of outer receptor segments. Like the phenothiazines, chloroquine is bound by melanin and concentrated in the RPE and uveal tissues. 51 It appears that chloroquine toxicity may be mediated by disruption of lysosomal function in the RPE and neural retina and by inhibition of critical enzymes and interference with their metabolic function. 44,52,53 Ocular findings of HCQ retinal toxicity as detected by various screening modalities. A female patient was diagnosed with HCQ retinal toxicity at the age of 53 years, having taken HCQ for 12 years at 400 mg/day. She was not obese and had no additional risk factors for toxicity.

    Both medications have been shown to bind melanin and to concentrate in the iris, ciliary body and retinal pigment epithelium, altering normal physiologic function. Chloroquine (Aralen) and hydroxychloroquine (Plaquenil) are traditional antimalarial agents now used in the treatment of autoimmune diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).

    Chloroquine toxicity of retina

    Recommendations on Screening for Chloroquine and., Chloroquine Retinopathy - an overview ScienceDirect Topics

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  5. Mar 15, 2019 Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine belong to the quinolone family. They are related drugs with similar clinical indications for use and similar manifestations of retinal toxicity, although their therapeutic and toxic doses differ.

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    Use of Chloroquine phosphate tablets for indications other than acute malaria is contraindicated in the presence of retinal or visual field changes of any etiology. Use of Chloroquine phosphate tablets is contraindicated in patients with known hypersensitivity to 4-aminoquinoline compounds. Warnings. Chloroquine-Resistant Malaria Chloroquine retinopathy, is a form of toxic retinopathy damage of the retina caused by the drugs chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine, which are sometimes used in the treatment of autoimmune disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus. This eye toxicity limits long-term use of the drugs. Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine retinopathy rare if recommended dose limits followed ; Once visual symptoms develop, they cannot be reversed, and may worsen even if medication stopped; Monitoring with visual fields, optical coherence tomography, and electroretinography allows earlier detection of toxicity and may prevent disabling vision loss

     
  6. Plaquenil (hydroxychloroquine) belongs to a group of medicines called quinolines. Hydroxychloroquine Side Effects, Dosage, Uses, and More Anyone on Hydroxychloroquine plaquenil - Autoimmune. PLAQUENIL HYDROXYCHLOROQUINE SULFATE TABLETS, USP DESCRIPTION
     
  7. Wlad470 New Member

    Chloroquine is used to prevent or treat malaria caused by mosquito bites in countries where malaria is common. CDC - Malaria - Diagnosis & Treatment United States. Safety and Efficacy of Different Regimens of Primaquine on. Chloroquine - Wikipedia
     
  8. DreamTim Well-Known Member

    The lysosomal inhibitor, chloroquine, increases cell surface. Chloroquine increases expression of BMPR-II at physiologically relevant concentrations and surface expression in lung fibroblasts. A Human PAECs were treated for 16 h with the following concentrations of chloroquine 0.5, 1, 5, 10 and 50 μ m.

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  9. Max368 Moderator

    Antimicrobial therapies for Q fever - PubMed Central PMC Q fever diagnosis and treatment. Q fever is a zoonotic disease caused by infection with the intracellular bacterium Coxiella gram-negative bacterium has a nearly worldwide distribution and infects a wide variety of animals, including mammals, birds, reptiles, and arthropods.

    Hydroxychloroquine - Wikipedia